Self-driving cars are being developed at an alarming rate. Many experts believe that in the near future, these self-driving cars would replace the current cars in the market. ST explores the technical aspects of selfdriving car...............................................................................................................................................Ed
As global warming and energy issues arise around the world, environmental and fuel efficiency issues are considered as the paradigm shift in automobile technology. Therefore, the key to cars in the future is technology and environment, self-driving in terms of technology and xEV(electronic vehicle) in terms of environment. ST will discuss the technical aspects of self-driving car in a technical aspect.
A self-driving car is a vehicle designed to help people by detecting their surroundings in order to determine the risks and minimize manual driving operation, such as planning driving paths. Where would the developmental stage of this self-driving technology be located? It is necessary to first know the criteria by which the degree of technology application is divided into stages.
The steps were subdivided into levels 0 to 5 by SAE (the Society of Automotive Engineers) and levels 0 to 4 by NHTSA (the National Traffic Safety). Level 0 represents the level at which the driver is involved in all operations of the vehicle. Level 1 represents the level at which the driving automation supports one or more controls. Level 2 represents the level at which the vehicle is driven, watched by the driver, and directly controlled during emergencies. Level 3 represents the level at which the selfdriving car can drive on its own without being operated manually. Finally, Level 4 represents the level at which it operates without a driver to its destination. The SAE further subdivided this into the altitude automation phase and Level 5 into the complete automation phase.
Many automakers are currently in the second level. Navigant Research found that the annual average growth rate of mass produced vehicles with self-driving skills will reach 85% by 2035, with support from the government and efforts by ICT makers and carmakers to develop the technologies.
As described earlier, a self-driving car is a vehicle that ‘recognizes’ its surrounding environment, as well as ‘judges’ and ‘controls’ the risks.
The Recognition technique would introduce the LIDAR, RADAR, camera, and V2X (vehicle-to-everything) communication technology. RADAR (RAdio Detection And Ranging) and LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) are sensors that detect external conditions, whileV2X provides information around the vehicle through an available network. As can be inferred from the role of these techniques, cognitive skills can function as human eyes.
Next is the Judging technology, which plays the role of a brain to make decisions on the body. Typical technologies include judged and driven control systems, learning type control systems, etc. It is important to note that “Big Data” is the basis of a learning control system. Car technology is deeply connected to people’s lives, and sufficient information is needed to make a correct decision. As big data technologies are being applied to self-driving cars, the self-driving car companies and ICT companies are cooperating with each other.
After the judgment, vehicle Control is needed (e.g., ADAS,x-by-wire, and ITS). ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) is a key technology for self-driving vehicles and it is literally a technology that helps and accompanies drivers. The typical systems are AEB (Autonomous Emergency Braking) that reduces speed or stops itself after a collision risk; ASCC (Advanced Smart Cruise Control), which maintains a constant speed and an interval between cars; and ABSD (Active Blind Spot Detection), which helps you notice the collision risk and make changes to a safe car. X-by-wire technology, which is another control technique for vehicles, is the technology to electronically control devices, such as steering wheel or brake, by means of network technology.
In addition, the critical technology, Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), refers to the system that incorporate technologies (e.g., communication and control) into transport systems. As the car paradigm shifts, the roads in which the cars run are also required to make the appropriate technology changes.
As everything has both positive and negative sides, so does the self-driving car. The biggest problem is not the technological development, but the security, institutions, and ethics.
Self-driving vehicles are created in order to ensure the safety of the passengers. In other words, it could hurt pedestrians for the safety of the passengers. Here, the classic ethical problem of trolley dilemma appears in self-driving cars of the 21st century. With the inevitability of loss of life, it is normal to ask, “Who should the self-driving car’s algorithms be designed for in order to make a scapegoat?” In addition, confusion in the legal system is expected because the objects could become a legal personality in the existing human-centered system. In addition, the security challenges of today’s IT field will be applied equally in combination with automotive and IT technologies. Physical security should also be considered.
At this point, new competitive challenges will be about to not only develop technology for the future of self-driving cars, but also provide solutions to ethical problems, security issues, and making the appropriate laws and systems.
Jung In-hwa (ST Cub-Reporter) firstname.lastname@example.org